Lesson 02: Pronunciation, Introducing Yourself, Numbers

Lesson Objectives:


  • Students will recognize diphthongs and understand how they are pronounced.
  • Students will learn basic questions and answers in Spanish.
  • Students will demonstrate the ability to greet and introduce themselves in Spanish.

The Vowels

In Spanish, as in English, there are five vowels: a, e, i, o, and u.  Unlike English, however, the pronunciation of these vowels does not change, making Spanish quite easy to pronounce.

Example: a, e, i, o, u.  "adaptar" (to adapt), "elefante" (elephant), "imitar" (to imitate), "olor" (smell), "unir" (to unite).

Diphthongs

A diphthong (diptongo in Spanish) is the union of two vowels in one single syllable.  In order to pronounce Spanish well, it is important to understand how diphthongs work.  A diphthong is formed using a combination of a "weak" vowel ("u" or "i") with a "strong" vowel ("a," "o," or "e"), the weak vowels together can also form a diphthong.  All of the possible vowel combinations that form dipthongs are "au," "ai," "ou," "oi," "eu," "ei," and "ui" (and of course the reverse of all of these.)  In a diphthong, both vowels are pronounced yet the strong vowel carries more stress in the voice.

Examples: "guante" guan-te (glove), "duodécimo" duo-dé-ci-mo (twelfth), "diurno" diur-no(day), "bueno" bue-no (good), "misterio" mis-te-rio (mistery), "farmacia" far-ma-cia (pharmacy) "veinte" vein-te (twenty)

When two strong vowels are combined a diphthong is not formed, instead they are separated into different syllables.  Examples: "maestro" ma-es-tro (teacher) "latinoamericano" la-ti-no-a-me-ri-ca-no (Latin American)

If a weak vowel and a strong vowel are paired, but the weak vowel carries a written accent, then no dipthong is formed.  Instead, the vowels are broken up into separate syllables.  Example: río rí-o (river) notice the difference between "río" and "misterio" poesía po-e-sí-a (poetry) notice the difference between "poesía" and "farmacia"

When the strong vowel carries an accent, the diphthong is not broken Example: "información" in-for-ma-ción.

Punctuation

In Spanish, whenever an exclamation or question is written, two exclamation marks or two question marks are used.  One mark is at the end of the sentence and the other at the beginning of the sentence and is upside-down.  Therefore, it is clear at the beginning of a sentence if it is a statement, a question, or an exclamation.

Examples: ¿Qué tal? (How are you?)

                  ¡Muy bien! (Great!). Computers vary on where the upside-down question marks and exclamation marks are located. If you cannot figure out how to do them, you should just use a regular exclamation mark or question mark at the beginning of the sentence. For example, !Hola!

Now that you know how Spanish sounds and a bit about punctuation, we are going to work on our first sentences. 

Introducing yourself

When you meet somebody for the first time, there are some basic things about yourself that you want to communicate.  The following are questions typical in an informal setting; this is used in situations such as being introduced to friends of friends.  We go over more about formal and informal forms in a few lessons.

Example.

 

"Las preguntas"
(The questions)

"Cómo responder"
(How to respond)

 

 

¿Cómo te llamas?         
 (What is your name?)

Me llamo _________. 
( My name is __________.)

 

 

¿Cuántos años tienes?                                     
(How old are you?)

Tengo _____ años.

(I am ______ years old.)

 

 

¿De dónde eres?  
 (Where are you from?)

Soy de ________        . 
(I am from _________.)

 

 

¿Dónde vives? 
 (Where to you live?)

Yo vivo en _______.

(I live in _______.)

 

 

¿Tú hablas español?  
 (Do you speak Spanish?)

Sí, yo hablo español. 
(Yes, I speak Spanish.)
No, yo no hablo español.  
(No, I do not speak Spanish.)
Yo hablo un poco de español. 
(I speak a little Spanish)

 

For a more formal setting, such as a business meeting, the answers would be the same, but the following would be the questions:

¿Cómo se llama?                                                       
(What is your name?)

¿Cuántos años tiene?                                     
(How old are you?)

¿De dónde es?                                                           
(Where are you from?)

¿Dónde vive? 
                                                (Where to you live?)

¿Usted habla español?                                                           
(Do you speak Spanish?)

The following vocabulary is also important when greeting people or saying farewell:

Hola                             Hello

¿Cómo está?                How are you? (formal)

¿Cómo estás?               How are you? (informal)

Estoy bien.                   I am good.

Estoy mal.                    I am bad.

Estoy así así.               I am OK.

You can also say "Bien," "Mal," or "Así así."  Without the "estoy."

Adiós.                          Goodbye.

Hasta luego.                 See you later.

Hasta mañana.             See you tomorrow.

How do you say?

When learning another language, it is important to know how to ask for new vocabulary, the following sentences in Spanish can come in very handy:

¿Cómo se dice __________ en español?   How do you say ______ in Spanish?

¿Cómo se dice__________ en ingles?   How do you say______ in English?

The first question is useful when you want to know how to say an English word in Spanish.  The second is useful when you encounter a Spanish word which you do not recognize and you want to know how to say it in English.

Practice

Watch the following VIDEO to hear and practice the pronunciation of these useful phrases. Please repeat the questions and responses after each slide.
 
 

The Numbers

Here are the numbers from 0-101 in Spanish. 

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 0          zero                http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 34        treinta y cuatro         http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 68        sesenta y ocho           

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 1          uno                 http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 35        treinta y cinco          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 69        sesenta y nueve        

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 2          dos                 http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 36        treinta y seis             http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 70        setenta

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 3          tres                http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 37        treinta y siete            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 71        setenta y uno

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 4          cuatro            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 38        treinta y ocho            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 72        setenta y dos

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 5          cinco              http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 39        treinta y nueve          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 73        setenta y tres

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 6          seis                 http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 40        cuarenta                   http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif  74        setenta y cuatro

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 7          siete               http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 41        cuarenta y uno          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 75        setenta y cinco

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 8          ocho               http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 42        cuarenta y dos          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif  76        setenta y seis

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 9          nueve             http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 43        cuarenta y tres          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 77        setenta y siete

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 10        diez                http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 44        cuarenta y cuatro     http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 78        setenta y ocho

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 11        once               http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 45        cuarenta y cinco       http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 79        setenta y nueve

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 12        doce               http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 46        cuarenta y seis          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 80        ochenta

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 13        trece              http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 47        cuarenta y siete         http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 81        ochenta y uno

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 14        catorce          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 48        cuarenta y ocho         http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 82        ochenta y dos

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 15        quince           http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif  49        cuarenta y nueve      http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 83        ochenta y tres

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 16        dieciséis        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif  50        cincuenta                  http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 84        ochenta y cuatro

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 17        diecisiete       http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 51        cincuenta y uno        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 85        ochenta y cinco

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 18        dieciocho       http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 52        cincuenta y dos        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 86        ochenta y seis

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 19        diecinueve     http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 53        cincuenta y tres        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 87        ochenta y siete

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 20        veinte             http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 54        cincuenta y cuatro    http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 88        ochenta y ocho

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 21        veintiuno        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 55        cincuenta y cinco      http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 89        ochenta y nueve

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 22        veintidós        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 56        cincuenta y seis         http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 90        noventa

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 23        veintitrés        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 57        cincuenta y siete       http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 91        noventa y uno

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 24        veinticuatro   http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 58        cincuenta y ocho       http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 92        noventa y dos

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 25        veinticinco     http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 59        cincuenta y nueve     http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 93        noventa y tres

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 26        veintiséis        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 60        seisenta                     http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 94        noventa y cuatro

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 27        veintisiete      http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 61        seisenta y uno           http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 95        noventa y cinco

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 28        veintiocho      http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 62        seisenta y dos            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 96        noventa y seis

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 29        veintinueve    http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 63        seisenta y tres            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 97        noventa y siete

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 30        treinta            http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 64        seisenta y cuatro        http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 98        noventa y ocho

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 31        treinta y uno  http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 65        seisenta y cinco          http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 99        noventa y nueve

http://www.sc.whitmoreschool.org/sec/classes/images/spanish1/circle03_green.gif 32        treinta y dos    66        seisenta y seis                      100      ciento

 33        treinta y tres          67        seisenta y siete                      101      ciento uno

 

As you can see, in order to learn the numbers in Spanish it is not necessary to memorize all of them.  You only need to learn the first twenty numbers and each multiple of ten thereafter (thirty, forty, fifty, etc) and you can count to one hundred.  In order to complete this lesson you need to learn these numbers.  Try to practice counting and then test yourself to see if you can recall specific numbers.  Remember you should mostly concentrate on "zero"-"veinte", "treinta", "cuarenta", "cincuenta", "seisenta", "setenta", "ochenta", "noventa", and "ciento."  Making flashcards may be helpful

Practice

Please watch the following VIDEO to practice the pronunciation of the numbers:

Grading Rubric:

* Note: You will be given up to three chances to revise your work after your initial post.

To get a 10: No factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors the first time, or within the first revision. All work is formatted properly, written clearly, properly cites references, and covers all required points and topics; all lesson requirements have been met.
To get a 9: You can have 1 or 2 factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors. All work is formatted properly, written clearly, properly cites references, and covers all required points and topics; all lesson requirements have been met.
To get an 8: You can have 3 or 4 factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors. All work is formatted properly, written clearly, properly cites references, and covers all required points and topics; all lesson requirements have been met.
To get a 7: You can have 5 factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors. All work is formatted properly, written clearly, properly cites references, and covers all required points and topics; all lesson requirements have been met.
To get a 6: You can have up to 6 factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors. All work is formatted properly, written clearly, properly cites references, and covers all required points and topics; all lesson requirements have been met.
To get a 5: More than 6 factual, grammatical (spelling, punctuation, capitalization, wrong word, etc.) or structural errors. Plagiarism – purposeful or mistaken. Which will lower your final grade for the course (So, be very careful when posting your work!); lack of effort, disrespect, or attitude (we are here to communicate with you if you don't understand something); or 6 or more errors of any kind. Answer in complete sentences; lesson requirements have not been met.

Assignment:

All of your answers are found in the lesson text, or audio files or videos. Do not use an outside translator for the lesson. Please answer the following questions and submit using the form below. Include the questions with your answers and please write in English and in complete sentences.

1.  What is a diphthong?

2.  What are the strong vowels in Spanish?

3.  Of the words"lengua" (language), "pastelería" (baker's shop), "patear" (to kick), and"puerta" (door) which two have diphthongs?

4.  When do you use informal conversation?

5. When do you use formal conversation?

6.  Using the vocabulary in the lesson, translate into Spanish the following short  informal dialogue.  Use correct accents marks, punctuation and special haracters if needed.

Juan and Sara run in each other in the hallway at school and they have a quick greeting and goodbye before class: 

Juan: Hello Sara.  How are you?

Sara: I am good.  How are you?

Juan: I am OK. 

Sara: Goodbye.

Juan: See you later.


Answer the following questions in Spanish using complete sentences using the vocabulary in the lesson. Use correct accents marks, punctuation and special characters if needed.

7. ¿Cómo te llamas?   

8. ¿Cuántos años tienes?                                

9. ¿De dónde eres?                                                     

10. ¿Dónde vives?                                            

11. ¿Tú hablas español?

         12. Now ask a polite question of your teacher that is typical of an introduction in Spanish. 


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